Doping agent classes and doping substances 2021

Prohibited Substances and Methods in Sports 2021 (based on a list provided by the World Anti-Doping Agency WADA)

(Numbers in superscript refer to more detailed references included at the end of the document. Asterisks refer to explanations included under the topic in question.)

The official version of the Prohibited List is maintained by WADA and it is published in English and French on WADA's website. If there are any discrepancies between the Finnish, Swedish, English and French versions, the English version shall prevail.

All prohibited substances are considered "specified substances", excluding the substances in classes S1., S2., S4.3., S4.4. and S6.a and the prohibited methods included in classes M1., M2.1. and M3.

SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES (IN- AND OUT-OF-COMPETITION, FOR EXAMPLE, DURING THE TRAINING SEASON AND BETWEEN COMPETITIONS)

S0. Non-approved substances

S1. Anabolic agents

S2. Peptide hormones, growth factors, related substances and mimetics

S3. β2-agonists

S4. Hormone and metabolic modulators

S5. Diuretics and masking agents

M1. Manipulation of blood and blood components

M2. Chemical and physical manipulation

M3. Gene and cell doping

SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED IN-COMPETITION

In addition to substances and methods specified under items S0 to S5 and M1 to M3, the following substances and methods are prohibited in-competition:

S6. Stimulants

S7. Narcotics

S8. Cannabinoids

S9. Glucocorticoids

SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED IN PARTICULAR SPORTS

P1. Beta-blockers

Examples of prohibited substances and methods

Substances printed in italics are substances that are not included in WADA's Prohibited List as such. However, according to FINCIS's interpretation, they are included in other substances having similar chemical structure or biological effects or in substances derived from the substances included in the list.

SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES (IN- AND OUT-OF-COMPETITION, FOR EXAMPLE, DURING THE TRAINING SEASON AND BETWEEN COMPETITIONS)

PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES

S0. NON-APPROVED SUBSTANCES (PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES)

Any pharmacological substance which is not addressed by any of the subsequent sections of the List and with no current approval by any governmental regulatory health authority for human therapeutic use (e.g. drugs under pre-clinical or clinical development or discontinued, designer drugs, substances approved only for veterinary use) is prohibited at all times.

S1. ANABOLIC AGENTS (PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES)

1. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) when administered exogenously, including, but not limited to:

  • 1-Androstenediol (5α-androst-1-ene-3β,17β-diol)
  • 1-Androstenedione (5α-androst-1-ene-3,17-dione)
  • 1-Androsterone (3α-hydroxy-5α-androst-1-ene-17-one)
  • 1-Epiandrosterone (3β-hydroxy-5α-androst-1-ene-17-one)
  • 1-Testosterone (17β-hydroxy-5α-androst-1-en-3-one)
  • 4-Androstenediol (androst-4-ene-3β, 17β-diol)
  • 4-Hydroxytestosterone (4,17β-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one)
  • 5-Androstenedione (androst-5-ene-3,17-dione)
  • 7α-Hydroxy-DHEA
  • 7β-Hydroxy-DHEA
  • 7-Keto-DHEA
  • 19-Norandrostenediol (estr-4-ene-3,17-diol; Bolandiol)
  • 19-Norandrostenedione (estr-4-ene-3,17-dione)
  • 19-Nortestosterone (Nandrolone)
  • Androstanolone (5α-dihydrotestosterone, 17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one)
  • Androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol)
  • Androstenedione (androst-4-ene-3,17-dione)
  • Bolasterone
  • Boldenone
  • Boldione (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione)
  • Calusterone
  • Clostebol
  • Danazol ([1,2]oxazolo[4´,5´:2,3]pregna-4-en-20-yn-17α-ol)
  • Dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (4-chloro-17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one)
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; 3β-hydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one)
  • Desoxymethyltestosterone (17α-methyl-5α-androst-2-en-17β-ol and 17α-methyl-5α-androst-3-en-17β-ol)
  • Dihydrotestosterone (DHT; 17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one)
  • Drostanolone
  • Epiandrosterone (3β-hydroxy-5α-adrostan-17-on)
  • Epi-dihydrotestosterone (17β-hydroxy-5β-androstan-3-one)
  • Epitestosterone
  • Ethylestrenol (19-norpregna-4-en-17α-ol)
  • Fluoxymesterone
  • Formebolone
  • Furazabol (17α-methyl[1,2,5]oxadiazolo[3´,4´:2,3]-5α-androstan-17β-ol)
  • Gestrinone
  • Mestanolone
  • Mesterolone
  • Metandienone (Methandrostenolone; 17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one)
  • Metenolone
  • Methandriol
  • Methandrostenolone
  • Methasterone (17β-hydroxy-2α,17α-dimethyl-5α-androstan-3-one)
  • Methyl-1-testosterone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methyl-5α-androst-1-en-3-one)
  • Methylclostebol
  • Methyldienolone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestra-4,9-dien-3-one)
  • Methylnortestosterone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestr-4-en-3-one)
  • Methyltestosterone
  • Methyltrienolone
  • Metribolone (Methyltrienolone; 17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one)
  • Mibolerone
  • Nandrolone (19-Nortestosterone)
  • Norboletone
  • Norclostebol (4-chloro-17β-ol-est-4-en-3-one)
  • Norethandrolone
  • Oxabolone
  • Oxandrolone
  • Oxymesterone
  • Oxymetholone
  • Prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA)
  • Prostanozol (17β-[(tetrahydropyran-2-yl)oxy]-1´H-pyrazolo[3,4:2,3]-5α-androstane)
  • Quinbolone
  • Stanozolol
  • Stenbolone
  • Testosterone 1
  • Tetrahydrogestrinone (THG; 17-hydroxy-18a-homo-19-nor-17α-pregna-4,9,11-trien-3-one)
  • Trenbolone (17β-hydroxyestr-4,9,11-trien-3-one)

In addition, other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effects.

Other examples of metabolites and isomers – added by FINCIS:

  • 3α-Hydroxy-5α-adrostan-17-one
  • 4-Androstenediol (Androst-4-ene-3β, 17β-diol)
  • 5α-Androst-2-ene-17-one (Delta-2; 2-adrostenone)
  • 5α-Androstane-3α,17α-diol
  • 5α-Androstane-3α,17β-diol
  • 5α-Androstane-3β,17α-diol
  • 5α-Androstane-3β,17β-diol
  • 5β-Androstane-3α,17β-diol
  • 19-norandrosterone
  • 19-noretiocholanolone
  • Acetothiolutamide
  • Androst-4-ene-3α,17α-diol
  • Androst-4-ene-3α,17β-diol
  • Androst-5-ene-3α,17β-diol
  • Androst-5-ene-3α,17α-diol
  • Androst-5-ene-3β,17α-diol
  • Androstadione
  • Androstane (3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one)
  • Androsterone
  • Drostanediol
  • Etiocholanolone
  • Mepitiostane

2. Other anabolic agents, including, but not limited to the following:

  • Clenbuterol
  • Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), such as
  • Andarine
  • Enobosarm (Ostarine)
  • LGD-4033 (Ligandrol)
  • Ligandrol
  • Ostarine
  • RAD140
  • Tibolone
  • Zeranol
  • Zilpaterol

In addition, other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effects.

S2. PEPTIDE HORMONES, GROWTH FACTORS, RELATED SUBSTANCES AND MIMETICS (PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES)

The following substances and other substances with a similar chemical structure or biological effects are prohibited:

1. Erythropoietins (EPO) and agents affecting erythropoiesis (i.e. agents stimulating red blood cell production):

1.1. Erythropoietin-receptor agonists

Including, but not limited to:

  • CERA (methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta)
  • Darbepoetins (δEPO, dEPO)
  • Erythropoietin-mimetic agents and their constructs, such as
  • CNTO-530
  • Peginesatide (Hematide)
  • Epoetins (Erythropoietins)
  • Erythropoietins (EPO, RhEPO)
  • Erythropoietin fusion proteins (EPO-Fc)
1.2. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activating agents

Including, but not limited to:

  • Cobalt
  • Daprodustat (GSK1278863)
  • IOX2
  • Molidustat (BAY 85-3934)
  • Roxadustat (FG-4592)
  • Vadadustat (AKB-6548)
  • Xenon

Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) is not prohibited.

1.3. GATA inhibitors

Including, but not limited to:

  • K-11706
1.4. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) signalling inhibitors

Including, but not limited to:

  • Luspatercept
  • Sotatercept
1.5. Innate repair receptor agonists

Including, but not limited to:

  • Asialo-erythropoietin
  • Carbamylated erythropoietin (CEPO)

2. Peptide hormones and their releasing factors

2.1. Chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and luteinising hormone (LH) and their releasing factors in males are prohibited

Including, but not limited to:

  • Buserelin 2
  • Chorionic gonadotrophin alfa (hCG) 2
  • Deslorelin 2
  • Gonadorelin 2
  • Gonadotropin 2
  • Goserelin 2
  • Histrelin 2
  • Human chorionic gonadothrophin (hCG) 2
  • Leuprorelin 2
  • Luteinising hormone (LH; lutropin alfa) 2
  • Menotropin (gonadotropin) 2
  • Nafarelin 2
  • Triptorelin 2
2.2. Corticotrophins and their releasing factors:

Including, but not limited to:

  • ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)
  • Corticoliberin (CRF; CRH)
  • Corticorelin
2.3. Growth Hormone (GH), its fragments and releasing factors

Including, but not limited to:

  • Growth hormone (=GH, somatotropin, somatropin)

Growth hormone fragments, including, but not limited to,

  • AOD-9604
  • hGH 176-191

Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and its analogues, such as

  • CJC-1293
  • CJC-1295
  • Sermorelin
  • Somatoliberin (SRF; SRH)
  • Tesamorelin

Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS), such as

  • Ghrelin
  • Lenomorelin (ghrelin)
  • Ghrelin mimetics, such as
  • Anamorelin
  • Ipamorelin
  • Macimorelin
  • Tabimorelin

Growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP), such as

  • Alexamorelin
  • Examorelin (hexarelin)
  • GRRP-1
  • GHRP-2 (pralmorelin)
  • GRRP-3
  • GHRP-4
  • GRRP-5
  • GHRP-6
  • Hexarelin

3. Growth factors and growth factor modulators

Including, but not limited to:

  • Fibroblast growth factors (FGF)
  • Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)) and its analogues, such as
  • LR3IGF-1 (=Long-chain IGF-1)
  • Mecasermin (IGF-1)
  • Mechano growth factors (MGFs)
  • Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
  • Thymosin-β4 and its derivatives, e.g. TB-500
  • Vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

Other growth factors and growth factor modulators affecting muscle, tendon or ligament protein synthesis/degradation, vascularisation, energy utilization, regenerative capacity or fibre type switching.

S3. β2 AGONISTS (PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES)

All selective and non-selective β2 agonists, including all optical isomers, are prohibited, excluding inhaled formoterol, salbutamol and salmeterol with limited dosages (more information provided further in this document).

Including, but not limited to:

  • Arformoterol
  • Bambuterol
  • Bitolterol
  • Broxaterol
  • Carbuterol
  • Fenoterol
  • Formoterol 3
  • Higenamine
  • Indacaterol
  • Isoprenaline
  • Levosalbutamol
  • Olodaterol
  • Procaterol
  • Reproterol
  • Rimiterol
  • Salbutamol 4
  • Salmeterol 5
  • Terbutaline
  • Tretoquinol (trimetoquinol)
  • Tulobuterol
  • Vilanterol 29

The following are exceptions to the above and not prohibited:

- Inhaled salbutamol: maximum 1,600 micrograms over 24 hours in divided doses not to exceed 800 micrograms over 12 hours, starting from any dose

- Inhaled formoterol: maximum delivered dose of 54 micrograms over 24 hours.

- Inhaled salmeterol: maximum 200 micrograms over 24 hours

- Inhaled vilanterol: maximum 25 micrograms over 24 hours

The presence in urine of salbutamol in excess of 1000 ng/mL or formoterol in excess of 40 ng/mL is not consistent with therapeutic use of the substance and will be considered as an Adverse Analytical Finding (AAF) unless the Athlete proves, through a controlled pharmacokinetic study, that the abnormal result was the consequence of a therapeutic dose (by inhalation) up to the maximum dose indicated above.

S4. HORMONE AND METABOLIC MODULATORS (PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES)

The following hormone and metabolic modulators are prohibited:

1. Aromatase inhibitors

Including, but not limited to:

  • 2-Androstenol (5α-androst-2-en-17-ol);
  • 2-Androstenone (5α-androst-2-ene-17-one);
  • 3-Androstenol (5α-androst-3-en-17-ol);
  • 3-Androstenone (5α-androst-3-en-17-one);
  • 4-Androstene-3,6,17-trioni (6-oxo)
  • 4-Hydroxyandrostenedione
  • Aminoglutethimide
  • Anastrozole
  • Androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione (androstatrienedione; ATD; keto-etiochol-triene)
  • Androsta-3,5-diene-7,17-dione (arimistane)
  • Arimistane
  • Exemestane
  • Fadrozole
  • Formestane
  • Letrozole
  • Testolactone
  • Vorozole

2. Anti-estrogenic substances (Anti-estrogens and Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM))

Including, but not limited to:

  • Arzoxifene
  • Bazedoxifene
  • Clomifene
  • Cyclofenil
  • Droloxifene
  • Fispemifene
  • Fulvestrant
  • Idoxifene
  • Lasofoxifene
  • Ospemifene
  • Raloxifene
  • Tamoxifen
  • Toremifene

3. Agents preventing activin receptor IIB activation

Including, but not limited to:

  • Activin A-neutralizing antibodies
  • Activin receptor IIB competitors, such as
  • Decoy activin receptors, such as
  • ACE-031
  • Anti-activin receptor IIB antibodies, such as
  • Bimagrumab
  • Myostatin inhibitors, such as
  • Agents reducing or ablating myostatin expression
  • Myostatin-binding proteins, e.g.
  • Follistatin
  • Myostatin propeptide
  • Myostatin-neutralizing antibodies, e.g.
  • Domagrozumab
  • Landogrozumab
  • Stamulumab

4. Metabolic modulators

4.1. Activators of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)

Including, but not limited to:

  • AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofurano-side)
  • SR9009
  • Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor δ (PPARδ) agonists, such as
  • 2-(2-methyl-4-((4-methyl-2-(4-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl)thiazol-5-yl)methylthio)phenoxy)acetic acid (GW1516, GW501516)

4.2. Insulins and insulin-mimetics

Including, but not limited to:

  • Human insulin
  • Insulin aspart
  • Insulin degludec
  • Insulin detemir
  • Insulin glargine
  • Insulin glulisine
  • Insulin lispro
  • Protamine insulin

4.3. Meldonium (mildronate)

4.4. Trimetazidine

S5. DIURETICS AND MASKING AGENTS (PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES)

The following diuretics*** and masking agents*** are prohibited, as are other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effects:

  • Acetazolamide
  • Amiloride
  • Bendroflumethiazide
  • Benzthiazide
  • Brinzolamide 6
  • Bumetanide
  • Canrenone
  • Chlortalidone
  • Chlorothiazide
  • Clopamide
  • Cyclothiazide
  • Diclofenamide
  • Dorzolamide 6
  • Eplerenone
  • Etacrynic acid
  • Furosemide
  • Hydrochlorothiazide
  • Indapamide
  • Mefruside
  • Metolazone
  • Potassium canrenoate
  • Spironolactone
  • Triamterene
  • Trichlormethiazide
  • Vaptans (V2 antagonists)
  • Conivaptan
  • Lixivaptan
  • Mozavaptan
  • Satavaptan
  • Tolvaptan
  • Argipressin
  • Desmopressin
  • (=antidiuretic hormone; ADH, vasopressin)
  • Terlipressin
  • Probenecid

Plasma expanders

Including, but not limited to:

  • Intravenous administration:
  • Albumin
  • Dextran
  • Gelatin
  • Hydroxyethyl starch (HES)
  • Mannitol
  • Polygelin
  • Polyhydroxyethyl starch

***When a substance has a limit for its concentration in urine, the use of the substance together with a diuretic or masking agent either in-competition (e.g. cathine, ephedrine, methylephedrine, pseudoephedrine) or both in and out-of-competition (e.g. formoterol, salbutamol) requires – irrespective of the amount used – that the athlete has also been granted a TUE for the substance in addition to a TUE granted for the diuretic or masking agent. 7

Drospirenone, pamabrom, and ophthalmic use of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (e.g. brinzolamide or dorzolamide) are not prohibited.

Local administration of felypressin in dental anaesthesia is not prohibited. 6

PROHIBITED METHODS

M1. MANIPULATION OF BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS (PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES)

The following methods are prohibited:

1. The administration or reintroduction of any quantity of autologous, allogenic (homologous) or heterologous blood or red blood cell products of any origin into the circulatory system is prohibited.

2. Artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery of oxygen.

Including, but not limited to:

  • Perfluorochemicals
  • Perflubron
  • Fluorocarbons
  • Myo-inositol trispyrophosphate (ITPP, OXY111A)
  • Efaproxiral (RSR13)

Modified haemoglobin products

  • Haemoglobin-based blood substitutes
  • Microencapsulated haemoglobin products

The inhalation of supplemental oxygen is not prohibited.

3. Any form of intravascular manipulation of the blood or blood components by physical or chemical means is prohibited.

M2. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MANIPULATION (PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES)

The following methods are prohibited:

1. Tampering, or attempting to tamper, to alter the integrity or validity of samples collected during doping control is prohibited. Such methods include, but are not limited to, sample substitution and/or adulteration e.g. addition of proteases to sample.

2. Intravenous infusions and/or injections of more than a 100 mL per a 12-hour period are prohibited except for those legitimately received in the course of hospital treatments (but not ambulatory care), surgical procedures or clinical diagnostic investigations.

M3. GENE AND CELL DOPING (PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES)

The following, with the potential to enhance sport performance, are prohibited:

1. The use of nucleic acids or nucleic acid analogues that may alter genome sequences and/or alter gene expression by any mechanism. This includes but is not limited to gene editing, gene silencing and gene transfer technologies.

2. The use of normal or genetically modified cells.

SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED IN-COMPETITION

In addition to substances and methods specified in classes S0 to S5 and M1 to M3, the following substances are prohibited in-competition:

Prohibited substances

S6. STIMULANTS (PROHIBITED IN-COMPETITION)

Substance of Abuse in this section: cocaine and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA/ecstacy)

All stimulants, including all optical isomers, e.g. d- and l- where relevant, are prohibited.

Stimulants include:

a: Non-specified stimulants:

  • Adrafinil
  • Amfepramone
  • Amfetamine 10
  • Amfetaminil
  • Amiphenazole
  • Benfluorex
  • Benzylpiperazine (BZP)
  • Bromantan
  • Carphedon
  • Clobenzorex
  • Cocaine
  • Cropropamide
  • Crotetamide
  • Dexamfetamine 10
  • Dexfenfluramine
  • Fencamine
  • Fenetylline
  • Fenfluramine
  • Fenproporex
  • Fonturacetam (4-phenylpiracetam; carphedon)
  • Furfenorex
  • Lisdexamfetamine 11
  • Mefenorex
  • Mephentermine
  • Mesocarb
  • Methamfetamine (d-)
  • Modafinil 16
  • Norfenfluramine
  • Para-methylamfetamine (p-methylamfetamine)
  • Phendimetrazine
  • Phentermine
  • Prenylamine
  • Prolintane

A stimulant not expressly listed in this section is a Specified Substance in accordance with section b.

b: Specified stimulants:

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1-(3-Trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine) (TFMPP)
  • 1-(3-Chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP)
  • 1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)piperazin (MeOPP)
  • 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA)
  • 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-propylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-7)
  • Dimethoxy-4-bromoamfetamine (DOB)
  • 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine (2C-B)
  • 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthiophenetylamine (2C-T-2)
  • 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamfetamine (DOI)
  • 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine (2C-I)
  • 2-amino-4-methylhexane (methylhexaneamine) 26
  • 2-amino-4-methylpentane (DMBA)
  • 3-fluoromethcathinone
  • 3-methylhexan-2-amine (1,2-dimethylpentylamine)
  • 3,4-Methylenedioxyhydroxyamfetamine (MDOH)
  • 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)amfetamine (MDHOET)
  • 4-amino-2-methylpentane (DMBA)
  • 4-AMP (DMBA)
  • 4-fluoroamfetamine
  • 4-methylhexan-2-amine (methylhexaneamine)
  • 4-methylpentan-2-amine (1,3-dimethylbutylamine)
  • 5-methylhexan-2-amine (1,4-dimethylpentylamine)
  • α-PVP (α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone)
  • Adrenaline 12
  • AMP citrate (DMBA)
  • Apraclonidine 20
  • Bemegride
  • Benzfetamine
  • Brimonidine 21
  • Bromo-benzodifuranyl-isopropylamine (ABDF)
  • Buphenine (Diethylproprion)
  • Cathine (=Norpseudoephedrine) 27
  • Cathinone and its analogues
  • Chlorphentermine
  • Cyclazodone
  • Diethylproprion
  • Dimetamfetamine (Dimethylamfetamine)
  • Dimethylamylamine (DMAA; methylhexaneamine) 26
  • DMBA
  • Doxapram
  • Ephedrine 13
  • Ephedrone (Methcathinone)
  • Epinephrine (Adrenaline) 12
  • Etafedrine
  • Etamivan
  • Etilamfetamine
  • Etilefrine 14
  • Ethylcathinon
  • Famprofazone
  • Fenbutrazate
  • Fencamfamin
  • Fortane (methylhexaneamine) 26
  • Geranamine (methylhexaneamine) 26
  • Heptaminol
  • Hydroxyamfetamine
  • Isometheptene
  • Levmetamfetamine
  • Mazindol
  • Meclofenoxate
  • Mephedrone
  • Methamfetamine (L-isomer) (Levmetamfetamine)
  • Methcathinone
  • Methedrone
  • Methylaminorex (MAX)
  • Methylenedioxyamfetamine (MDA)
  • Methylenedioxyethylamfetamine (MDEA)
  • Methylenedioxymethamfetamine (MDMA)
  • Methylephedrine 13
  • Methylhexaneamine 15
  • Methylphenidate 26
  • Methylpentylamine 26
  • Midodrine 28
  • Nikethamide
  • Noradrenaline 17
  • Norfenefrine
  • Norpseudoephedrine (Cathine) 27
  • Octodrine (1,5,-dimethylhexylamine)
  • Octopamine
  • Ortetamine
  • Oxilofrine (Methylsynefrine)
  • Parahydroxyamphetamine (Hydroxyamfetamine)
  • Parametoxyamfetamine
  • Parametoxymethylamfetamine
  • Pemoline
  • Pentetrazol
  • Penthylamine (Methylhexaneamine) 26
  • Phenethylamine and its derivatives
  • Phenmetrazine
  • Phenpromethamine
  • Picrotoxin
  • Propylhexedrine
  • Pseudoephedrine 18
  • Pyrovalerone
  • α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP)
  • Selegiline 19
  • Sibutramine
  • Strychnine
  • Tenamfetamine (methylenedioxyamfetamine)
  • Trimetoxyamfetamine (TMA-2)
  • Tuaminoheptane

In addition, other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effects.

The following are not prohibited:

Imidazole derivatives for dermatological, nasal or ophthalmic use (such as brimonidine, clonazoline, fenoxazoline, indanazoline, naphazoline, oxymetazoline, tetryzoline and xylometazoline) and those stimulants included in the 2021 Monitoring Program (bupropion; caffeine; nicotine; phenylephrine, i.e. metaoxedrin; phenylpropanolamine, i.e. norephedrine; pipradrol, and synephrine).

Clonidine is not prohibited.

Adrenaline (epinephrine) is permitted when administered locally (e.g. nasal or eye drops) or with local anaesthetics agents.

Cathine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 5 microg/ml.

Ephedrine and methylephedrine are prohibited when the concentration of either in urine is greater than 10 microg/ml.

Pseudoephedrine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 150 microg/ml. 21

S7. NARCOTICS (PROHIBITED IN-COMPETITION)

Substance of Abuse in this section: diamorphine (heroin)

The following narcotics, including all optical isomers, e.g. d- and l- where relevant are prohibited:

  • Alfentanil 22
  • Buprenorphine 22
  • Dextromoramide
  • Diacetylmorphine (heroin)
  • Diamorphine (heroin)
  • Fentanyl and substances derived from it
  • Heroin
  • Hydromorphone 22
  • Methadone 22
  • Morphine 22
  • Nicomorphine
  • Oxycodone 22
  • Oxymorphone
  • Pentazocine
  • Pethidine
  • Remifentanil 22
  • Sufentanil 22
  • 3-methylfentanyl (TMF)

S8. CANNABINOIDS (PROHIBITED IN-COMPETITION)

Substance of Abuse in this section: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

All natural and synthetic cannabinoids are prohibited, e.g.

  • Cannabis and cannabis products
  • Hashish 23
  • Hashish oil 23
  • Marijuana 23
  • Natural and synthetic tetrahydrocannabinols (THCs) 23
  • Synthetic cannabinoids that mimic the effect of THC

Cannabidiol is not prohibited.

S9. GLUCOCORTICOIDS (PROHIBITED IN-COMPETITION)

All glucocorticoids are prohibited when administered by oral, intravenous, intramuscular or rectal route.

Including, but not limited to:

  • Beclometasone 24
  • Betamethasone 24
  • Budesonide 24
  • Ciclesonide 24
  • Cortisone 24
  • Deflazacort 24
  • Dexamethasone 24
  • Fluocortolone 24
  • Fludrocortisone 24
  • Flunisolide 24
  • Fluticasone 24
  • Hydrocortisone 24
  • Methylprednisolone 24
  • Mometasone 24
  • Prednisolone 24
  • Prednisone 24
  • Triamcinolone 24

SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED IN PARTICULAR SPORTS

P1. BETA-BLOCKERS (PROHIBITED IN PARTICULAR SPORTS)

Including, but not limited to:

  • Acebutolol 25
  • Alprenolol
  • Atenolol 25
  • Betaxolol 25
  • Bisoprolol 25
  • Bunolol
  • Carteolol
  • Carvedilol 25
  • Celiprolol 25
  • Esmolol 25
  • Labetalol 25
  • Landiolol
  • Levobunolol
  • Metipranolol
  • Metoprolol 25
  • Nadolol
  • Nebivolol 25
  • Oxprenolol
  • Penbutolol
  • Pindolol 25
  • Practolol
  • Propranolol 25
  • Sotalol 25
  • Timolol 25

In addition, other substances with a similar chemical structure or biological effects.

Beta-blockers are prohibited in the following sports:

  • Archery***** (WA)
  • Automobile (FIA)
  • Billiards (all disciplines) (WCBS)
  • Darts (WDF)
  • Freestyle aerials/halfpipe (FIS)
  • Golf (IGF)
  • Snowboarding halfpipe/big air (FIS)
  • Shooting***** (ISSF, IPC)
  • Ski jumping (FIS)

Underwater sports (in constant-weight apnoea with or without fins, dynamic apnoea with and without fins, free immersion apnoea, Jump Blue apnoea, spearfishing, static apnoea, target shooting, and variable weight apnoea) (CMAS)

The name of the international federation is given in parenthesis.

Beta-blockers are prohibited only in-competition. However, in sports marked with ***** (archery and shooting), beta-blockers are prohibited both in- and out-of-competition.

The international sports federation for shooting sports, ISSF, has stated that beta-blockers are not permitted in any competitions under the federation, even with a Therapeutic Use Exemption. Based on ISSF's requirement, the national anti-doping organizations must also comply with this policy. This means that shooters within the scope of FINCIS's level determination (shooters participating in the Finnish Championships in one of the following categories: open class for men and women and over 15-year-old juniors (rifle, pistol, shotgun and running target shooting)) are no longer allowed to use beta-blockers in national competitions or out-of-competition – not even with a Therapeutic Use Exemption. In addition, previously granted Therapeutic Use Exemptions are therefore no longer valid. FINCIS's Therapeutic Use Exemption Committee can grant only retroactive Therapeutic Use Exemptions for beta-blocker use for athletes not within the scope of FINCIS's level determination.

Specifications

1, The use of testosterone is prohibited at all times. An athlete may be granted a therapeutic use exemption for testosterone only when comprehensive examinations show an unambiguous organic reason for the inadequate secretion of testosterone, such as primary or secondary hypogonadism. An athlete will not be granted a therapeutic use exemption for testosterone merely for having somewhat low testosterone levels in their serum or attaining certain scores in subjective evaluation scales. Nor is a therapeutic use exemption granted for testosterone in cases where functional testosterone deficiency is caused by aging, obesity, overtraining, stress, iatrogenic hyperprolactinemia or other reasons. In justified cases, a therapeutic use exemption may be granted for low-dose short-term use of testosterone to start puberty.

2, The use of human chorionic gonadotrophin, luteinising hormone and their releasing factors is prohibited at all times and only for male athletes.

3, Formoterol is permitted only as pulmonary inhalation, with a maximum dosage of 54 micrograms over 24 hours. Its use is prohibited at all times in larger doses through pulmonary inhalation or other administration methods. If the concentration of formoterol in urine exceeds 40 ng/ml, the use of the substance is considered to have been non-medical and the result is interpreted as an adverse analytical finding, unless the athlete, by means of a controlled pharmacokinetic investigation, is able to prove that the abnormal finding is due to the medicinal use of formoterol administered through pulmonary inhalation (maximum dosage 54 micrograms over 24 hours).

4, Salbutamol is permitted only as pulmonary inhalations, nevertheless for a maximum of 1 600 micrograms over 24 hours, in divided doses not to exceed 800 micrograms over 12 hours starting from any dose. Its use is prohibited at all times in larger doses through pulmonary inhalation or other administration methods. If the concentration of salbutamol in urine exceeds 1 000 nanograms per millilitre, the use of the substance is considered to have been non-medical and the result is interpreted as an adverse analytical finding, unless the athlete, by means of a controlled pharmacokinetic investigation, is able to prove that the abnormal finding is due to the medicinal use of salbutamol administered through pulmonary inhalation (maximum dosage 1 600 micrograms/day, nevertheless not exceeding 800 micrograms within a 12-hour period). N.B. Salbutamol may be inhaled in various dosage forms: as an inhalation powder, as an inhalation spray or as a respirator solution. Inhalation powder and inhalation spray products are manufactured so that they produce a very precise dosage, either 100 or 200 micrograms per a single dose. However, when using the respirator solution, a single inhaled dose recommended by the manufacturer (2 500 or 5 000 micrograms) already exceeds the maximum daily dose according to anti-doping legislation, and the salbutamol content of the urine may rise above the permitted limit. The respirator solution is intended for the treatment of severe asthma attacks, primarily in hospital environments. The use of salbutamol as a respirator solution requires a well-founded therapeutic use exemption, as does the use of salbutamol as tablets or an oral solution.

5, Salmeterol is permitted only when administered through pulmonary inhalation, with a maximum dosage of 200 micrograms over 24 hours. Its use is prohibited at all times in larger doses through pulmonary inhalation or other administration methods.

6, Brinzolamide and dorzolamide are not prohibited when administered in eye drops. Their use through other administration methods is prohibited at all times.

7, When a substance has a decision limit for its concentration in urine, the use of the substance together with a diuretic or masking agent either in-competition (e.g. cathine, ephedrine, methylephedrine, pseudoephedrine) or both in and out-of-competition (e.g. formoterol, salbutamol) requires – irrespective of the amount used – that the athlete has also been granted a TUE for the substance in addition to a TUE granted for the diuretic or masking agent.

8, The use of felypressin as a local anaesthetic during a dental operation is not prohibited.

9, Salt, sugar, iron and nutrient solutions and some medicine administered intravenously as infusions of more than 100 ml are not, as such, mentioned in the list of prohibited substances and methods. However, intravenous infusions and/or injections of fluids are prohibited at all times if the volume of the infused liquid exceeds 100 millilitres in 12 hours, with the exception of justified infusions administered during hospital visits (but not ambulatory care), surgical procedures or clinical diagnostic examinations.

10, Amfetamine and dexamfetamine are prohibited in-competition, and they are monitored only in samples collected in-competition. According to FINCIS’ estimate, the withdrawal period for amfetamine and dexamfetamine is approximately 7 days.

11, Lisdexamfetamine is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. According to FINCIS’ estimate, the withdrawal period for lisdexamfetamine is approximately 5 days.

12, Adrenaline is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. Adrenaline is, nevertheless, permitted when administered topically (e.g. nasal or eye drops) or with local anaesthesia. If adrenaline is needed to treat an acute and serious disorder (e.g. injection to treat anaphylactic shock) and the athlete intends to take part in a competition within the next 24 hours, the athlete has to apply for a retroactive therapeutic use exemption immediately after the treatment. According to FINCIS’ estimate, the withdrawal period for adrenaline is approximately 24 hours.

13, Ephedrine and methylephedrine are prohibited in-competition, and they are monitored only in samples collected in-competition. The concentration of ephedrine or methylephedrine in urine may not exceed 10 micrograms/ml. According to FINCIS’ estimate, the withdrawal period for ephedrine is approximately 4 days.

14, Etilefrine is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. According to FINCIS’ estimate, the withdrawal period for etilefrine is approximately 3 days.

15, Methylphenidate is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. According to FINCIS’ estimate, the withdrawal period for methylphenidate products is approximately 7 days.

16, Modafinil is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. According to FINCIS’ estimate, the withdrawal period for modafinil is approximately 7 days.

17, Noradrenaline is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. According to FINCIS’ estimate, the withdrawal period for noradrenaline is approximately 24 hours.

18, Pseudoephedrine is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. The concentration of pseudoephedrine in urine must not exceed 150 micrograms/ml. According to studies performed by WADA, this limit will not be exceeded with the normal therapeutic dosage of pseudoephedrine (e.g. when taking one 60 mg capsule 1–3 times/day, one 120 mg depot tablet twice/day, or one 240 mg depot tablet once/day) if an athlete stops taking pseudoephedrine 24 hours before competition. In other words, the withdrawal time for pseudoephedrine is 24 hours. Rhinitis or nasal congestion due to allergies is not alone sufficient grounds for granting a therapeutic use exemption for the use of pseudoephedrine, since permitted nasal sprays as well as permitted antihistamines may be used during the 24-hour period preceding a competition.

19, Selegiline (deprenyl) is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. According to FINCIS’ estimate, the withdrawal period for selegiline products is approximately 7 days.

20, Apraclonidine is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. According to FINCIS’ estimate, the withdrawal period for apraclonidine is approximately 3 days. When administered topically (e.g. as eye drops), apraclonidine is nevertheless permitted.

21, Brimonidine is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. According to FINCIS’ estimate, the withdrawal period for brimonidine is approximately 2 days. When administered topically (e.g. as eye drops or as a gel), brimonidine is nevertheless permitted.

22, Narcotics (strong opioids) are prohibited during competitions, and they are monitored only in samples collected in-competition. According to FINCIS’ estimate, the withdrawal period for alfentanil is approximately 2 days, for buprenorphine products approximately 30 days, for hydromorphone approximately 7 days, for methadone approximately 30 days, for morphine approximately 7 days, for oxycodone approximately 7 days, for remifentanil approximately 2 days and for sufentanil approximately 8 days.If an athlete participates in competition during the use of medication, the athlete must have a valid Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) for the prohibited opioid treatment. If the opioid treatment has been discontinued Out-of-competition during the washout period, the concentrations of the prohibited substance may exceed the allowed decision limit in a doping sample during the In-competition period. However, the athlete can apply for a TUE retroactively after the positive doping test result in accordance with the International standard for TUEs (if the athlete has not applied for it in advance) when a prohibited opioid has only been used Out-of-competitions within the washout period (but not In-competition). In this case, it should be ensured beforehand that the terms and conditions related to the granting of a TUE are fulfilled. The athlete should have the medical file prepared and ready in case an application for retroactive TUE is necessary following doping test. The In-competition period starts on the day before the competition at 11:59 p.m., unless otherwise specified.

23, Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition.

24, All glucocorticoids are prohibited in-competition when administered orally, rectally, intravenously or intramuscularly, and they are monitored only in samples collected in-competition. Other routes of administration (e.g. pulmonary inhalation, intradermal, intra-articular, periarticular, peritendinous, used as topical preparations for treating ophthalmic, aural, auricular, gingival, buccal, nasal, perianal or dermatological disorders) are permitted. Intramuscularly administered glucocorticoids may be detected in analyses for a period of up to eight (8) weeks. When administered as tablets, the withdrawal period is approximately seven (7) days.If an athlete participates in competition during the use of medication, the athlete must have a valid Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) for the prohibited glucocorticoid treatment. If the glucocorticoid treatment has been discontinued Out-of-competition during the washout period, the concentrations of the prohibited substance may exceed the allowed decision limit in a doping sample during the In-competition period. However, the athlete can apply for a TUE retroactively after the positive doping test result in accordance with the International standard for TUEs (if the athlete has not applied for it in advance) when a prohibited glucocorticoid has only been used Out-of-competitions within the washout period (but not In-competition). In this case, it should be ensured beforehand that the terms and conditions related to the granting of a TUE are fulfilled. The athlete should have the medical file prepared and ready in case an application for retroactive TUE is necessary following doping test. The In-competition period starts on the day before the competition at 11:59 p.m., unless otherwise specified.

25, Beta blockers are prohibited in shooting (ISSF, IPC) and archery (WA) at all times. In particular sports (see the list below), they are prohibited in-competition and, for this reason, beta blockers are monitored only in samples collected in-competition (P1.). In the following sports (the international organisation is shown in brackets), beta blockers are prohibited only in-competition: automobile sports (FIA), billiards (all disciplines, WCBS), darts (WDF), freestyle (aerials and halfpipe, FIS), golf (IGF), snowboarding (halfpipe and big air, FIS), ski jumping (FIS) and diving (constant-weight apnea with and without fins, dynamic apnea with and without fins, free immersion, Jump Blue apnea, spear fishing, static apnea, underwater target shooting and variable weight apnea, CMAS). In addition, the international sports federation for shooting sports, ISSF, has stated that beta blockers are not permitted in any competitions under the federation, even with a therapeutic use exemption. According to FINCIS’ estimate, the approximate withdrawal periods for beta blockers are as follows: acebutolol 14 days, atenolol 14 days, betaxolol 14 days, bisoprolol 14 days, esmolol 5 days, carvedilol 9 days, labetalol 7 days, metoprolol 5 days, nebivolol 30 days, propranolol 5 days, celiprolol 5 days, sotalol 7 days and timolol 7 days. The withdrawal periods apply to disciplines in which the beta blockers are prohibited in-competition.

26, Methylhexaneamine is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. Some nutritional supplements contain methylhexaneamine (also known as 2-amino-4-methylhexaneamine; dimethylamylamine; DMAA; fortane; geranamine; methylpentanamine; pentylamine). According to FINCIS’ estimate, the withdrawal period for methylhexaneamine is approximately 7 days.

27, Cathine is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. The concentration of cathine in urine must not exceed 5 micrograms/ml.

28, This pharmaceutical is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition.

29, Vilanterol is permitted only when administered through pulmonary inhalation, with a maximum dosage of 25 micrograms over 24 hours. Its use is prohibited at all times in larger doses through pulmonary inhalation or other administration methods.